The following page contains a variety of scientific papers and studies related to alkaline water and the alkaline diet.  QURE® does not infer health claims by the association as these papers are independent scientific studies. These are available to read for educational purposes only. QURE® products are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.


Acid-base balance and hydration status following consumption of mineral-based alkaline bottled water

Conducted by Movement Science/Human Performance Laboratory, Department of Health & Human Development, Montana State University

This study found that consumption of Alkaline water was associated with improved acid-base balance (i.e., an alkalization of the blood and urine) and hydration status when consumed under free-living conditions. In contrast, subjects who consumed the placebo bottled water (non alkaline) showed no changes over the same period of time. These results indicate that the habitual consumption of Alkaline water may be a valuable nutritional vector for influencing both acid-base balance and hydration status in healthy adults.

Potential benefits of pH 8.8 alkaline drinking water as an adjunct in the treatment of reflux disease

Conducted by Koufman JM, Johnston N, Voice Institute of New York

This study found that unlike conventional drinking water, pH 8.8 alkaline water instantly denatures pepsin (fundamental to the processes involved in acid reflux disease), rendering it permanently inactive. In addition, it found that it has good acid-buffering capacity. Thus, the consumption of alkaline water may have therapeutic benefits for patients with acid reflux disease.

The effect of the alkali load of mineral water on bone metabolism: interventional studies

Conducted by Burckhart P, Clinique Bois-Cerf, Lausanne, Switzerland

This study indicates that alkali supplements decrease bone resorption (the process by which osteoclasts break down bone and release the minerals, resulting in a transfer of calcium from bone fluid to the blood) and increase bone mineral density. Alkali diets also lower bone resorption. Mineral waters alone could have such an effect. In humans, bicarbonate-rich alkali mineral waters with low potential renal acid load values were shown to decrease bone resorption markers and even parathyroid hormone levels. 

Mineral water as a source of dietary calcium: acute effects on parathyroid function and bone resorption in young men

Conducted by J, Guillemant J, Le HT, Accarie C, du Montcel ST, Delabroise AM, Arnaud MJ, Guillemant S, Service de Biochimie, Faculté de Médecine Pitié-Salpêtrière, Paris

This study was designed to determine whether high-calcium mineral water is an efficient additional source of dietary calcium. Calcium is a major component of mineralized tissues and is required for normal growth and maintenance of bone. A large percentage of the population fail to meet the currently recommended guidelines for optimal calcium intake. The study showed that one oral intake of water containing a very moderate dose of calcium (172 mg) acutely inhibited iPTH secretion and bone resorption. 

Effects of mineral composition of drinking water on risk for stone formation and bone metabolism in idiopathic calcium nephrolithiasis

Conducted by Marangella M, Vitale C, Petrarulo M, Rovera L, Dutto F, Renal Stone and Nuclear Medicine Laboratories, Torino, Italy

This study was conducted to find whether the mineral content of drinking water affects the formation of kidney stones. The authors suggest that overall calcium intake may be tailored by supplying calcium in drinking water. Adverse effects on bone turnover with low-calcium diets can be prevented by giving high-calcium, alkaline drinking water, and the stone-forming risk can be decreased as effectively as with low-calcium drinking water. 

Extracellular pH regulates bone cell function

Conducted by Arnett TR, Department of Anatomy and Developmental Biology, University College London, UK

This study found that diets or drugs that shift acid-base balance in the alkaline direction may provide useful treatments for bone loss disorders.  

Absorption and effect of the magnesium content of a mineral water in the human body

Conducted by Kiss SA, Forster T, Dongo A, Hungarian Magnesium Society, Szeged, Hungary

This study investigated magnesium absorption after Magnesia mineral water was consumed. Subjects consumed varying amounts of Magnesia mineral water and were given blood and other tests at differing intervals. All subjects had increased magnesium levels. No subject experienced ECG or rhythm disturbance, and blood pressure remained unchanged during the study. One patient developed diarrhea. It was found that Magnesia’s high magnesium and low sodium made it an excellent source of magnesium for patients suffering from heart problems and/or high blood pressure.  

Ionized alkaline water: new strategy for management of metabolic acidosis in experimental animals

Conducted by Abol-Enein H, Gheith OA, Barakat N, Nour E, Sharaf AE, Department of Urology, El Mansoura Urology and Nephrology Center, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt

This study aimed to assess the efficacy of Ionized alkaline water in the management of metabolic acidosis in animal models. Metabolic acidosis can occur as a result of either the accumulation of endogenous acids or loss of bicarbonate from the gastrointestinal tract or the kidney, which represent common causes of metabolic acidosis. Concluded alkaline ionized water can be considered as a major safe strategy in the management of metabolic acidosis secondary to renal failure or dialysis or urinary diversion. Human studies are needed.  

Effects of a bicarbonate-alkaline mineral water on digestive motility in experimental models of functional and inflammatory gastrointestinal disorders

Conducted by Fornai M, Colucci R, Antonioli L, Ghisu N, Tuccori M, Gori G, Blandizzi C, Del Tacca M, Interdepartmental Centre for Research in Clinical Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, University of Pisa, Italy

This study investigated the effects of a bicarbonate-alkaline mineral water in experimental models of diarrhea, constipation and colitis in rats. The study concluded the bicarbonate-alkaline mineral water exerted beneficial effects on gastrointestinal motility in the presence of bowel motor dysfunctions.  

Influences of alkaline ionized water on milk yield, body weight of offspring and perinatal dam in rats

Conducted by Watanabe T, Pan I, Fukuda Y, Murasugi E, Kamata H, Uwatoko KDepartment of Veterinary Physiological Chemistry, College of Bioresource Sciences, Nihon University, Kanagawa, Japan

This study’s authors previously reported that male offspring of mother rats given alkaline ionized water showed a significantly higher body weight by day 14 after birth than did offspring of mother rats given tap water. Differences in the milk yield of mothers and suckled milk volume of the offspring, between the alkaline ionized water and the tap water treated groups was reviewed to determine the cause. It was tentatively concluded that as calcium plays an important role in skeletal formation, the higher calcium concentration of alkaline ionized water enriched the mother, serum calcium which was transferred to the fetus through the placenta and to the offspring through the milk.  


Rolling Revision of the WHO Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality

Author World Health Organization

The World Health Organization details the benefits for drinking water with magnesium concentrations. There is also evidence of benefit for drinking water with calcium. Studies have shown magnesium’s protective action on the cardiac system. Hard water, defined as water that contains mineral salts (as calcium and magnesium ions) that limit the formation of lather with soap, can be a source of needed calcium and magnesium. The reintroduction of calcium and magnesium into demineralized water may provide health benefits to consumers. There are no known harmful human health effects associated with the addition of calcium and magnesium and the nutritional benefits are well known. In addition, some evidence exists for benefits associated with other diseases (stroke, renal stone formation, cognitive impairment in elderly, very low birth weight, bone fractures among children, pregnancy complications, hypertension, and possibly some cancers). Adding calcium and magnesium to the demineralized water would be a relatively inexpensive preventive intervention that does not require individual behavioral change. The intervention could not only provide health benefits but also help reduce medical care costs. It has been suggested that reduced cardiovascular mortality and other health benefits would be associated with minimum levels of approximately 20 to 30 mg/l calcium and 10 mg/l magnesium in drinking water.

Postgraduate Symposium: Positive influence of nutritional alkalinity on bone health

Conducted by Wynn E, Krieg MA, Lanham-New SA, Burckhardt P, University Hospital (CHUV), Lausanne, Switzerland

The symposium report covers the growing evidence that consumption of a Western diet is a risk factor for osteoporosis through excess acid supply, while fruits and vegetables balance the excess acidity, mostly by providing K-rich bicarbonate-rich foods. Western diets consumed by adults generate approximately 50-100 mEq acid/d; therefore, healthy adults consuming such a diet are at risk of chronic low-grade metabolic acidosis, which worsens with age as a result of declining kidney function. Bone buffers the excess acid by delivering cations and it is considered that with time an overstimulation of this process will lead to the dissolution of the bone mineral content and hence to reduced bone mass. Intakes of K, Mg and fruit and vegetables have been associated with a higher alkaline status and a subsequent beneficial effect on bone health. This report covers several studies leading to the conclusion mineral-water consumption could be an easy and inexpensive way of helping to prevent osteoporosis and could be of major interest for long-term prevention of bone loss.


Trace Minerals and pH: It’s Simply a Matter of Health

Author Chris D. Meletis, N.D.

Analyzing acid-base balance and the concentrations of minerals in the blood provide a way to address the ability of the body to maintain healthy balance. This article details how, by supplying the body with enough of the smaller, lesser-known substances found in nature, physicians can steer how the body reacts to its own internal production of wastes and to external influences on its health. Additionally, by preventing excessive fluctuations in acid-base balance, the body may be more apt to heal itself from chronic forms of illness. Thus, maintaining the complex functioning of the body’s tightly regulated pH system requires maintaining proper mineral and trace mineral levels to sustain optimal and healthful balance.

6 Reasons to Drink Water

Author WebMD

Consumption of water is vital for health. This article details six benefits you gain from adequate water intake: 1. Drinking water helps maintain the balance of body fluids. 2. Water can help control calories. 3. Water helps energize muscles. 4. Water helps keep skin looking good. 5. Water helps your kidneys cleanse your body of toxins. 6. Water helps maintain normal bowel function.

Informational Links

74 Alkaline Foods to Naturally Balance Your Body

The Alkaline Diet: Is There Evidence That an Alkaline pH Diet Benefits Health?

Alkaline Diets

Importance of Alkaline Diet- Jaffe and Donovan, Alkaline and Acid Food Chart 

Bicarbonate increases tumor pH and inhibits spontaneous metastases.

For The Geek In You